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Workhouse Glossary Almshouse An establishment, usually funded by a charitable endowment, providing free or subsidised accommodation for the elderly poor of good character, and typically constructed as a row of small self-contained cottages.
A wealthy person might bequeath money for the setting up of some almshouses in the hope that the residents might then regularly pray for his soul. See also PoorhouseWorkhouse. Badging of the Poor An Act ofamending the Settlement laws, required that anyone receiving poor relief wear a badge on their right shoulder. The badge, in red or blue cloth, consisted of the letter "P" together with the initial letter of the parish, for example "AP" for Ampthill parish. They were elected annually by the rate-payers in each parish in a Union.
In addition, local magistrates could act as ex officio Guardians. The Board met at a fixed time either weekly or fortnightly, usually in a board-room at the workhouse. Boarding Out Boarding out was the practice of placing workhouse children in the long-term care of foster parents who usually received a weekly allowance for each child staying with them.
See also scattered comescottage homeschildren and education Bone Crushing The pounding of old bones into dust for use as fertilizer. In the s, there was a public scandal when it was discovered that malnourished inmates at Andover workhouse had been fighting over scraps of rotting meat left on some bones they were supposed to be crushing.
It was intended to provide interesting and useful occupation such as knitting, embroidery or lace-making for non-able-bodied workhouse inmates who spent long hours confined to bed or in day rooms. Training in the various crafts was provided by outside volunteers and the costs were initially borne by Lady Brabazon. The scheme was slow to take off, with Kensington being the first to adopt it in However, it gradually spread, particularly when it was found that the goods produced were saleable and made the scheme self-financing.
Bythere were over branches. Bully's Acre Originally the graveyard adjoining the Royal Hospital in Dublin, where no payment of fees was exacted. Later used more generally as an informal term for a paupers' or famine graveyard, especially associated with workhouse burial grounds. In recent years, there has been a growing campaign to protect bully's acre sites from redevelopment. Captain Swing Riots In the autumn ofagricultural labourers across southern England protested against low wages, expensive food, and the growing mechanization of farms.
Threatening letters sent to land-owners and farmers were signed 'Swing' — the supposed, although probably fictitious, leader of the protests. Workhouses were amongst the rioters' targets — on 22nd November, a mob assailed the Selborne parish workhouse, turned out the occupants, burned or smashed the fittings and furniture, and pulled off the roof.
The following day, an even larger mob, including the Selborne rioters, did the same to the workhouse at nearby Headley. The ringleaders were later transported to Australia. See also Rebecca Riots. A typical 'Swing' letter. Casual Poor "Casuals" The Casual Poor usually known just as "Casuals" were those to which a workhouse gave temporary accommodation for one or two nights. Casuals — typically vagrants, tramps, or the "houseless poor" — did not need to be settled in the union.
They were required to perform a task of work such as stone-breaking or oakum-picking being allowed to leave. Casuals were housed in a separate area of the workhouse, usually near the entrance, known as the casual ward. Casual Ward Part of a workhouse for the accommodation of the casual poor. In London and a few other large cities, casual wards were sometimes erected on separate sites.
Class Room A smaller room in a school used for accommodating infants, or where a lesson was given to a particular class or group of pupils.
A class room typically had three rows of seats around the outside all facing in to the centre, and was often fitted with a gallery containing further seats. See also School Room. Children in a class-room - taking turns doing exercises for warmth in winter, c. Cottage Homes Introduced in the late s, and modelled on similar schemes in France, Germany and Switzerland, cottage homes were often set in rural locations away from the often poor conditions and malign influences of the union workhouse.
Groups or "families" of pauper children lived in 'villages' of purpose-built houses often set along a street or around a green. Each house would have a house 'parent' looking after twenty or thirty children. See also scattered homesboarding outchildren and education. Aston Union Cottage Homes. Creed Register Fromthe workhouse master had to record the religious creed of each new inmate so that appropriate arrangements could be made in respect of their education in the case of childrenserious illness, or death.
Creed Register Form Dietary The fixed and often basic and monotonous diet prescribed for workhouse inmates.
Afterthe Poor Law Commissioners devised a set of six slightly different standard dietaries from which each union could select the one it preferred, based on the local availability of various foodstuffs. Earth Closet A small outbuilding, room, or room-fitting used as a toilet, where dry earth is used to cover and deodorise deposits. Diagram of an earth-closet. Ex Officio Guardians Ex officio is a Latin phrase meaning "by virtue of one's office". Ex officio members of a union's Board of Guardians were people, usually local Justices of the Peace, who were entitled to a seat on their local Board without needing to be elected.
Foul Wards Workhouse wards for those suffering from venereal diseases. Grubber One of the slang names for the workhouse, along with SpikeBastille etc. Hospital An establishment originally offering a wide range of care, not only medical but also non-medical provision such as shelter and food, the education of children, and sanctuary for those incapacitated by old age or chronic infirmity.
House of Correction An early form of disciplinary institution dating back to the 16th century. In addition to its function of a gaol for the rogue, it might also include a workhouse for the poor, hospital for the old, and industrial school for the young. Some small "lock-ups" were also called Houses of Correction - an example survives in Hawarden, Flintshire: House Of Industry The name often used for the workhouse established by a Local Act Incorporationsalso the "Hundred" institutions set up in Norfolk and Suffolk unions in the eighteenth century.
Idiots and Imbeciles Idiots and imbeciles were two commonly used categories of mental subnormality. Definitions varied over the years but in broad terms: Idiots, the most deficient, were unable to protect themselves against basic physical dangers. Imbeciles, a less severely deficient group, were unable to protect themselves against moral and mental dangers. Incorporation A group of parishes joined by a special Local Act of Parliament and empowered to regulate a variety of local matters including poor relief.
Indoor Relief Poor relief provided via the workhouse.
See also Outdoor Relief. Industrial Schools Originally applied to workhouse schools where industrial training was given to pauper children. Afterthe term was more commonly applied to schools set up to detain vagrant, destitute and disorderly children who were considered in danger of becoming criminals. From the s, the latter were known as Approved Schools.
Infirmary An establishment offering treatment for the sick and injured, usually for a defined community. Thus, the medical provision in a workhouse was normally described as an infirmary.
Ins and Outs "Ins and Outs" were people who frequently entered and left the workhouse. Workhouses were never prisons, and inmates could leave with "reasonable notice", so long as they had been given back their own clothes — leaving the premises while wearing the workhouse uniform constituted theft of union property. For an example, see the episode involving Charlie Chaplin's family at the Lambeth workhouse.
Itch "The Itch", or scabies, was a common medical condition caused by a small parasite, similar to lice, which burrows under the skin casuing severe itching. The conditiuon was often contracted through occupying a bed with an infected individual. Most workhouses had specially designated "itch wards" for such cases. Laundry An out-building where newly washed clothes were processed, for example mangled, folded, pressed, ironed, starched etc. Lavatory In workhouse times, a room in which inmates washed as opposed to the modern usage meaning toilet.
Less Eligibility The principle that conditions in the workhouse should never be better than those of "an independent labourer of the lowest class. Some large workhouses had a "lock ward" where those with venereal diseases i. A Victorian half-penny and half-crown See also Workhouse Tokensand Weights and Measures Oakum Loose fibres obtained by unpicking old ropes which were then sold to the navy or other ship-builders - it was mixed with tar and used for caulking sealing the lining of wooden ships.
Picking oakum was done without tools of any sort and was very hard on the fingers. Picking oakum in the East End of London, Outdoor Labour Test A provision whereby out-relief could be given to able-bodied applicants, in return for their performing manual labour such as stone-breaking. No more than half the relief could be given as money.
Outdoor Relief or Out-Relief Poor relief provided outside the workhouse, either in cash or in kind. He suggested that where parts of a union fell in different counties, the creation of an out-relief union within each county area could simplify the administration of out-relief and also allow different counties to adopt differing out-relief policies if they wished. The existing poor law union would still operate the workhouse for indoor relief across the whole union.
Formal provision for out-relief unions came in section 58 of the Local Government Act and section 36 b of the Local Government Act. Overseers Officials of a parish, between two and four in number, appointed by the Vestry.
The duties of this unpaid post, first established inwere primarily financial - to supervise the collection and distribution of the poor rate. Poorhouse The term poorhouse was often used in England prior to for parish establishments housing paupers where there was no resident master or matron, no prescribed dietaryand where there little or no work was required of the inmates. Pauper establishments in Scotland were also invariably known as poorhouses or poor's housesperhaps reflecting that fact that they did not cater for the able-bodied and therefore imposed no requirement for deterrent work.
However, the words poorhouse and workhouse were often used fairly interchangeably. Afterthe institutions established by Poor Law Unions were always known as workhouses and always required the able-bodied inmates to perform work. In other countries, e. See also AlmshouseWorkhouse. Poor Law Institution The official name for a workhouse after Poor Rate A compulsory local tax, dating frombased on an official assessment of the value of the property in which one lived. It was collected by Parish Overseers and distributed under the jurisdiction of the Vestry.
Privy A room or small outbuilding used as a toilet, usually an earth closet rather than a water closet. Public Assistance Institution After the formal abolition of the workhouse system inmany former workhouses were redesignated as Public Assistance Institutions PAIs.
Up to A parliamentary report of recorded workhouses in use at Ecclesall Bierlow with accommodation for up to 45 inmatesNether Hallam 20Dore 60and Norton Nether Hallam workhouse site at Crookesmoor, A row of cottages dating from the s on Workhouse Green at Fulwood was a local workhouse for many years.
Fulwood Workhouse site, Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, 12 in number, representing its 7 constituent townships and parishes as listed below figures in brackets indicate numbers of Guardians if more than one: County of York — West Riding: Beauchief, Dore, Norton 2Totley. The population falling within the Union at the census had been 22, with townships ranging in size from Beauchief population 88 to Ecclesall Bierlow 14, Initially the Union continued to use the old workhouse on Psalter Lane.
However, this building could not easily be enlarged and the Guardians decided to erect a new workhouse. William Flockton was appointed as architect for the new workhouse which was intended to accommodate inmates. The location and layout of the site can be seen on the map below: Ecclesall Bierlow workhouse site, A porter's lodge and the original school block fronted on to the road.
Ecclesall Bierlow entrance from the south, c.
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Ecclesall Bierlow entrance lodge and school right from the south, The main block was E-shaped with its entrance at the east. Ecclesall Bierlow main building entrance from the east, Ecclesall Bierlow rear of main building from the north-west, The original workhouse infirmary lay directly to the south of the main building. Ecclesall Bierlow workhouse infirmary from the north-east, Inan asylum block was built to the north-west of the main building.
Ecclesall Bierlow asylum block from the south-west, Vagrants' wards were erected along Osborne Road at the north of the site. Ecclesall Bierlow vagrants' wards from the north-west, A building opposite the lodge on Union Road housed the Union offices.
It later became used as a school. Ecclesall Bierlow Union offices from the workhouse steps, early s. Ecclesall Bierlow Union offices from the west, The later layout of the site is shown on the map below: Ecclesall Bierlow main building from the south, early s.
A detail from the above picture show the official times for visiting inmates — Sundays from 3 to 4pm, and Mondays 4 to 5pm on alternate weeks. Ecclesall Bierlow workhouse visiting hours, early s. In the course of an investigation of the workhouse system, he visited the establishment and his account of what he found was sent to the Editor of the Sheffield Daily Telegraph.
His lengthy report can be viewed on a separate page.
Fromto protect them from disadvantage in later life, the birth certificates for those born in the workhouse gave its address just as 32 Union Road, Ecclesall. The workhouse site later became Ecclesall Institution, and then after was renamed Nether Edge Hospital.
As well as general wards, it included tuberculosis sanitoria and a maternity hospital. Inbombing destroyed several buildings including the dining hall and a nurses' home. The hospital closed down in the s and the site has now been redeveloped for residential use.
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Fulwood Cottage Homes Inthe union purchased a rural acre site on Bole Hill Lane at Fulwood on which to erect a children's cottage homes development. The commemorative foundation stone for the scheme was laid on 9th October by the Chairman of the Guardians, William Aldam Milner. Construction of the project appears to have continued untilwith an assembly hall, laundry and two children's cottages being completed in that year.
The architects were the intriguingly named Messrs. Holmes and Watson of Sheffield. The building contractors were Messrs. Wilkinson and Sons of Heeley. The children's homes were pairs of semi-detached houses, each half accommodating six boys and six girls together with a house-mother.
The initial phase of the scheme provided places for 78 children, with the final total of ten homes able to house The houses were, as was often the case in large cottage home sites, placed around a central green. However, the homes on the Fulwood site were mostly arranged to face south, effectively laid out as two rows rather than forming a circle.
The site layout is shown on the map below. The site entrance, at the west, had a small entrance lodge, now demolished. The driveway then led to the master's house which bears the foundation stone next to the window of what may have been the committee room.
There were stables to the rear of the house. Fulwood cottage homes site, Fulwood cottage homes — Master's house from the south-west, A single house to the north of the Master's house contained store-rooms on the ground floor with the boys' tailoring and shoemaking training workshops above. A corresponding house for girls at the south of the Master's house contained sewing and knitting rooms on its upper floor where clothes and black stockings were produced.
Fulwood cottage homes — girls' stores and training block, At the north-west corner of the site were a school and assembly hall, datedand a water tower which took its water from one of Sheffield's main supply conduits which passed nearby. At the foot of the tower were painting and carpentry workshops.
Fulwood cottage homes — school and water tower from the south-east, A single house at the south-west of the site had a single-storey block to the rear which housed the homes' laundry. Fulwood cottage homes — laundry block, The children's homes were of two slightly differing designs which alternated around the site.
Each semi-detached house contained on its ground floor a large living room or kitchen, scullery, bathroom and lavatory, grocery larder, and clothes store. At the centre of the kitchen was a very large table around which 15 people could sit. The first floor contained separate boys' and girls' dormitories, each containing six single beds, and the house-mother's bedroom. Outside were single-storeyed outbuildings which probably included a play-shed, wash-house, and coal-store.
Fulwood cottage homes — children's houses and central green from the south, Part of the green between the houses was cultivated by the boys to produce vegetables for the home. By the s and 50s, children in the homes were taken on an annual holiday, often camping by the coast at Withernsea or Marsk.
In later years, they ventured as far afield as Folkstone or the Isle of Man. Each child was given new clothes for their holiday — khaki shorts, shirt, sandals and a snake belt.
There were swings and slides in the grounds, and sports days were held on the central grassed area. On Friday evenings, each child received a token from their house mother to exchange for sweets at the homes' stores. The homes had their own boys' brass band. After leaving the homes at the age of 15, some boys might gain entry into the armed forces. Others found jobs on local farms or became miners. Many of the girls went into domestic service in the Ranmoor and Fulwood districts where they were much sought after.
The homes' first Superintendent stayed only for a year, but the three that followed with their wives as Matrons covered the whole of the homes' year existence. The homes closed in and the site was subsequently used as a girls' approved school under the name "Moorside". In the early s, Vietnamese boat-people were housed in the buildings.
Inthe site was converted to residential use with almost all of the original buildings surviving.
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